In North America, the standard protocol for water quality maintenance (WQM) is premised on the assumption that appropriate filtration and residual halogen disinfection will inactivate all pathogens.
Things to know:
- “Giardia can take up to 45 minutes to become deactivated in chlorine”
- “Norovirus takes about 30-60 minutes to deactivate”
- “Crypto is highly resistant to chlorine and can linger in a pool for up to one 10 days”
(refer to Inactivation time for human disease – causing microbes in chlorinated water. www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming )
Unfortunately Recreational Water Illness (RWI) is dramatically increasing. Research has also shown that halogen disinfection creates hazardous by-products (DBP’s). These DBP’s include chloramines, THM, HAA, and other contaminates that are recognized to have serious negative health effects. It is also established that certain pathogens are resistant to chlorine and ozone, thus leading to various diseases including respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal problems. Awareness and concern about exposure to DBP’s in pool and spas is increasing at an alarming rate. Health officials have acknowledged that the increase of RWI and negative health effects associated to DBP’s necessitates a paradigm shift in our thinking about how we treat pool and spa water.
Experts agree that moving beyond the basics will require revising the two pillars approach that includes filtration and halogen followed by adopting supplemental disinfection for water quality management for pools and spas.
In-line UV disinfection is recognized as an extremely effective and reliable method for deactivating pathogens in the water and reducing the bathers exposure to DBP’s.
Public health authorities are already beginning to mandate supplemental in-line UV disinfection.
“NY mandates supplemental in-line UV disinfection on all public splash parks”